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Österreichisches Literaturarchiv - Oswald, Peter (9/25)
Österreichische Zeitung Österreichisch-ungarische Monarchie in Wort und Bild, Die

Österreichisch-ungarische Monarchie, Doppelmonarchie


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Austro-Hungarian Monarchy: language areas.



Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (Austria-Hungary, Dual Monarchy): With the conclusion of the Compromise (Ausgleich) with Hungary in 1867 the kingdom of Austria was transformed from a unified state into a Dual Monarchy (Dualism). The Austrian and the Hungarian lands became independent entities enjoying equal status. Both states had the same head of state and conducted certain economic, foreign and military affairs in common. A monetary and customs union and an economic agreement which was to be revised every 10 years guaranteed the economic unity of both states. The two states consisted of: 1) "the kingdoms and lands represented in the Reichsrat" (Cisleithania): Lower Austria, Upper Austria, Styria, Carinthia, Salzburg, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Carniola and the Coastlands (Goricia-Gradisca, Trieste, Istria), Dalmatia, Bohemia, Moravia, Austria-Silesia, Galicia and Bukovina; they were subject to the "King of Austria". The collective term "Austria" for these areas was made official in 1915. 2) "the lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen " (Transleithania): Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, Slavonia and Fiume; headed by the "Apostolic King of Hungary". - In addition, there were the Turkish provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which were occupied by the Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1878, incorporated into the kingdom in 1908 and administered by the common ministry of finance. A constitution for both parts of the monarchy was never drawn up. Administration was carried out by the Delegations together with the responsible ministers. The monarch had control over the entire army. The constitution of the Austrian lands was based on the Fundamental Laws of 1867, that of the individual Crown Lands on a decree of 1861 (15 land regulations). The monarch conducted the legislative power together with the Reichsrat, in matters concerning the lands, together with the provincial diets of the Crown Lands. The Reichsrat consisted of the Herrenhaus (Upper House) with 291 (1914) members and the Abgeordnetenhaus (House of Deputies) with 516 members (elected by the people for 6 years).

The history of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy almost entirely falls into the reign of Emperor Franz Joseph I (Franz Joseph, Reign of ). After Franz Joseph's death (November, 21 1916) his great-nephew took over as Emperor Karl I (in Hungary as King Karl IV).

The Austro-Hungarian monarchy was the second biggest state (following Russia) in Europe and one of the decisive Great Powers. With rich mineral resources, fertile soils, numerous industries, favourable traffic routes, seaports and a territory which comprised the largest part of the Danube area with the Eastern Alps, Sudetenland, Carpathian Mountains and the Adriatic area, it represented an ideal economic area: The alpine regions provided wood, cattle, iron and salt, industrial regions were in particular Vienna, Lower Austria and Styria, agriculture was predominant in the northern lands of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia, which also had textile, iron and food industries, as well as mineral coal and brown coal deposits, agriculture and forestry was dominant in Hungary, Croatia and Slavonia. Since the individual economic areas complemented each other exports were low in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. The monarchy was a state consisting of various peoples, and the Nationality Question was never solved, despite many efforts (Federalism), and led to the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy at the end of World War I. In Cisleithania 35.5 % of the population was German-speaking in 1910 (19.12 % in the entire area of Austria-Hungary), in Transleithania 48 % were Magyars (in Hungary proper 54.5 %, in the entire state 19.12 %), Czechs and Slovaks made up 16.5 %, Serbs and Croatians 10.5 %, Poles 10 %, Ukrainians 8 %, Rumanians 6.5 %, Slovenes 2.5 %, Italians and others 2 % of the population. As regards religious beliefs the population consisted of 77.7 % Catholics, 8.8 % Protestants, 8.7 % Orthodox Christians, 4 % Jews and 0.8 % adherents of other denominations. When Emperor Karl proclaimed a federated multinational state on October 16, 1918, it was already too late. The individual nations had already established their independent states or joined nations outside of the empire. German-speaking delegates of the Reichsrat assembled as the "German-Austrian Nationalrat" and proclaimed the ( First Republic). The peace treaties of Saint-Germain (1919 with Austria) and Trianon (1920 with Hungary) confirmed the distribution of the lands of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy to the Successor States.


Literature: K. and M. Uhlirz, Handbuch der Geschichte Ö.-Ungarns, vol. II/2 (1848-1914), 1941; Die Habsburgermonarchie 1848-1918, ed. by A. Wandruszka and P. Urbanitsch, 3 vols., 1973-1980; Das Zeitalter Kaiser Franz Josephs, exhibition catalogue, Grafenegg 1984 and 1987.


Provinces / Lands of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy
Province / Land
km2
Population
(in thousands) 1914
Capital
Austria below the 
Enns (Lower Austria)

19,825

3,635.0

Vienna

Austria above the 
Enns (Upper Austria)

11,982

864.0

Linz

Styria 22,425 1,467.8 Graz
Carinthia 10,326 406.2 Klagenfurt
Salzburg 7,153 221.3 Salzburg
Tirol 26,683 979.7 Innsbruck
Vorarlberg 2,602 150.8 Bregenz
Krain 9,954 530.2 Laibach/Ljubljana
Adriatic Coastal Lands (Trieste, 
Goricia-Gradisca, Istria)

7,969

938.0

Triest/Trieste

Dalmatia 12,831 667.6 Zara/Zadar
Bohemia 51,947 6,860.0 Prague
Moravia 22,222 2,666.6 Brünn/Brno
Austria-Silesia 5,147 776.0 Troppau/Opava
Galicia 78,497 8,211.8 Lemberg/Lvìv
Bukovina 10,441 818.3 Czernowitz/Chernovtsy
Austria 300,004 29,193.3 Vienna
Hungary 282,870 18,810.9 Budapest
Fiume 20 48.8 Fiume/Rijeka
Croatia-Slavonia 42,521 2,669.9 Agram/Zagreb
Hungary 325,411 21,480.8 Budapest
Bosnia and 
Herzegovina

51,200

2,075.8

Sarajevo

Austro-Hungary 676,615 52,749.9 Vienna



Prime Ministers of the Kingdoms and Provinces Represented in the Reichsrat*
Baron Friedrich von Beust* Feb.-Dec. 1867
Prince Carlos Auersperg Dec. 1867-Sept. 1868
Count Eduard Taaffe Sept. 1868-Jan. 1870
Sir Leopold Hasner von Artha Jan. 1870-Apr. 1870
Count Alfred Potocki April 1870-Feb. 1871
Count Karl S. von Hohenwart Feb. 1871-Oct. 1871
Baron Ludwig von Holzgethan Nov. 1871
Prince Adolf Fürst Auersperg Nov. 1871-Feb. 1879
Karl von Stremayr Feb.-Aug. 1879
Count Eduard Taaffe Aug. 1879-Nov. 1893
Prince Alfred of Windisch-Graetz Nov. 1893-June 1895
Count Erich von Kielmansegg June-Sept. 1895
Count Kasimir Badeni Sept. 1895-Nov. 1897
Baron Paul Gautsch von Frankenthurn Nov. 1897-March 1898
Count Franz of Thun and Hohenstein March 1898-Sept. 1899
Count Manfred of Clary and Aldringen Oct.-Dec. 1899
Heinrich von Wittek Dec. 1899-Jan. 1900
Ernest von Koerber Jan. 1900-Dec. 1904
Baron Paul Gautsch von Frankenthurn Jan. 1905-April 1906
Prince Konrad of Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst May-June 1906
Baron Max Wladimir von Beck June 1906-Nov. 1908
Count Richard von Bienerth-Schmerling Nov. 1908-June 1911
Baron Paul Gautsch von Frankenthurn June-Nov. 1911
Count Karl von Stürgkh Nov. 1911.-Oct. 1916
Ernest von Koerber Oct.-Dec. 1916
Count Heinrich von Clam-Martinic Dec. 1916-June 1917
Ernst von Seidler June 1917-July 1918
Baron Max Hussarek von Heinlein July-end of Oct. 1918
Heinrich Lammasch End of Oct.-Nov. 11, 1918
*Imperial Chancellor



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