Fatherland Front, founded on May 20, 1933 by Federal Chancellor E. Dollfuß, a "nonpartisan" political organisation with the aim of uniting all Austrian forces loyal to the government. The speech held by E. Dollfuß on September 11, 1933 on the trotting race-course in Vienna was the first general call for the establishment of a "social, Christian, German Austria, on a corporative basis and under strong authoritarian leadership". When all the parties were dissolved the Fatherland Front became the sole representative of political objectives and of the Corporate State. Its symbol was the Cross Potent (Teutonic Cross), students carried a badge bearing the words "Stand together", all civil servants were obliged to become members. Headed by E. Dollfuß (until July 25, 1934), E. R. Starhemberg (July 29, 1934 - March 14, 1936) and K. Schuschnigg (March 14, 1936 - March 11, 1938). The Fatherland Front had several subordinate organisations, the Österreichisches Jungvolk, a "volkspolitisches Referat für national Gesinnte", i.e. a nationalist section, a socio-political section for former Social Democrats and the "Frontmiliz", created in October 1936 to replace the paramilitary forces. After his assassination E. Dollfuß was seen as a martyr (memorial places, the song "Ihr Jungen schließt die Reihen gut ..." dedicated to him).
Literature: I. Bärnthaler, Die vaterländische Front, Geschichte und Organisation, 1971; L. Reichhold, Kampf um Österreich. Die vaterländische Front und ihr Widerstand gegen den Anschluß 1933-1938, 21985.
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