Coat of arms of Vienna´s 3rd district, Landstraße
Landstraße, 3rd district of Vienna, area 7.41 km2 pop. 84,500 (1991), the largest district within the Gürtel (circular road around the inner districts of Vienna); comprises the former suburbs situated between River Danube and Danube Canal, which became part of Vienna in 1850: first documentary mention of Landstraße in the 13th century, first documentary mention of Erdberg and Weißgerber after 1529. The Viennese nobility built summer palaces between these originally rural settlements in the 18th and 19th centuries, usually with large parks (still extant are Modenapark and Arenbergpark). Vegetable growing was still a main source of income in the 2nd half of the 19th century; even today there are still many rural houses in Erdberg. The Roman town of Vindobona was situated in the area of the former Aspang train station (demolished in 1977); the Landstraßer Hauptstraße and the Rennweg, two main roads, are almost identical with former Roman roads which led to the east via Carnuntum. Most embassy buildings are in the 3rd district today. The Arsenal became part of Landstraße in 1938, formerly it was a part of the 10th district.
15 churches, among them: Rochus church (from 1642 onwards, the only building of the district which remained from before the Turkish siege of Vienna in 1683) with former monastery (dissolved in 1812); Baroque high altar by Peter Strudel (around 1690); Elisabethine church and convent (1711, 1743 restored by F. A. Pilgram) with a hospital (1836); parish church of Mariä Geburt (orphanage church, 1768) with former orphanage (1785 removed to the Alsergrund area); Gardekirche church, from 1755 until 1763 built as imperial hospital church, handed over to the Polish guards in 1782 (Polish national church to present day), owned by the Community of the Resurrection since 1897; Salesian church and nunnery with cloister, 1717-1730 by D. F. von d´Allio; Weißgerber parish church, 1866-1869 by F. von Schmidt; parsonage chapel (1852-1854 by C. Sitte) with altar-pieces by L. Kupelwieser; Russian orthodox church, 1893-1899; Neuerdberger church, 1954-1958.
Secular buildings: Belvedere; Schwarzenberg palace; Rasumofsky palace (1807, today Geologische Bundesanstalt); former University of Veterinary Medicine (1823, since 1998 departments of the University of Music and Performing Arts); Arsenal; the Austrian Mint (Münze Österreich AG); the Austrian State Archives; the Konzerthaus concert hall (Wiener Konzerthausgesellschaft), the University of Music and Performing Arts and the Akademietheater (all 1912-1913 by H. Helmer and F. Fellner); Theater im Rabenhof theatre, Metternich palace (1846-1848, since 1908 Italian embassy); Sternberg palace (1821/22); former building of the executive board of the provincial fiscal authority (1844-1847); state printers (Österreichische Staatsdruckerei); federal boarding school; building of the Vienna Voluntary Ambulance Association and Wilczek memorial in memory of Count Wilczek, who founded the Ambulance Association in 1881; Rudolfstiftung hospital; former Mautner Markhof children´s hospital (closed in 1998); building of the executive board of the Österreichische Bundesforste AG (Austrian Federal Forests); head office of the Vienna transit system (Wiener Linien). Council housing estates (Rabenhof, Hanuschhof, Austerlitzhof, Wildganshof, etc.). Botanical Gardens of the University of Vienna; part of the Stadtpark on right bank of River Wien; Belvederepark and alpine gardens; Schwarzenberg gardens (private); Schweizer gardens with Museum of the 20th Century; ice-skating rink; St. Marx cemetery with W. A. Mozart´s tomb. Fountain and Soviet Liberation Memorial on the Schwarzenbergplatz.
Landstraße is the district with the highest number of commercial enterprises after the 1st district; many small businesses and industrial enterprises (Henkel Central Eastern Europe GmbH etc.), insurances, banks. An industrial area emerged in the Erdberger Mais area, east of Schlachthausgasse in the period after World War II, with many commercial enterprises. The Slaughterhouse, dating back to 1851 was closed in 1997; large market hall.
Literature: H. Kretschmer, L., 1982; F. Czeike, L., Wiener Bezirkskulturführer, 1984; idem, Historisches Lexikon Wien, 5 vols., 1992-1997.
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