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Orchestras: The first examples of orchestral formations were the ensembles of the nobility in the 18th century, which, with the exception of the Wiener Hofmusikkapelle and the Esterházy ensemble under J. Haydn, could, according to present-day standards, at best be considered chamber orchestras. Large symphony orchestras developed in the 19th century; the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra was established in 1842 and is the oldest orchestra still in existence. Other large Austrian symphony orchestras are the Vienna Symphony Orchestra, the Niederösterreichische Tonkünstler orchestra (NTO), the Radio Symphonieorchester Wien (RSO), the Bruckner Orchestra and the Mozarteum-Orchester Salzburg. In Austria there are numerous Chamber Music associations and orchestras of various sizes (e.g. Concentus musicus Wien, Camerata Academica Salzburg, Wiener Kammer-Orchester, etc.), as well as internationally famous ensembles for contemporary music (e.g. "die reihe").
Literature: H. Goertz, Musikhandbuch für Österreich, 31993.