Nobel Laureates: The Nobel Prize is the most prestigious international award for special achievements in the fields of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature and the maintenance of peace. It has been awarded annually from the interest accumulated by the Nobel Foundation established by the Swedish chemist and industrialist Alfred Nobel (1833-1896) on the suggestion of the Austrian B. von Suttner. The winners of the Physics and Chemistry awards are selected by the Swedish Academy of Sciences, the winners of the Physiology or Medicine prize by the Karolinska Medikokirugiska Institutet in Stockholm, the Literature laureates by the Royal Swedish Academy, and the winners of the Peace prize by a committee of the Norwegian Parliament (Storting). A Nobel Prize for Economics was founded in 1969 by the Bank of Sweden and has since then been awarded by the Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Austrian Nobel Laureates:
Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine: Robert Bárány, 1914 (Hungarian citizen, on research on physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus; Julius Wagner-Jauregg, 1927 (discovery of Malaria inoculation to treat dementia paralytica); Karl Landsteiner, 1930 (discovery of the blood groups), Otto Loewi, 1936 (research on the chemical transmission of nerve impulses); Konrad Lorenz, 1973 (ethology of wild Greylags and domestic geese), Karl Frisch, 1973 (ethology of bees, their dance language and orientation).
Nobel Prize for Chemistry: Fritz Pregl, 1923 (for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances); Richard Zsigmondy, 1925 (German citizen, for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry), Richard Johann Kuhn, 1938 (German citizen, for his work on carotenoids and vitamins); Max Ferdinand Perutz, 1962 (British citizen, for his studies of the structures of globular proteins); Walter Kohn, 1998 (US citizen, for his development of the density-functional theory).
Nobel Prize for Physics: Erwin Schrödinger, 1933 (for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory); Viktor Franz Hess, 1936 (for his discovery of cosmic radiation); Wolfgang Pauli, 1945 (for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle in quantum theory).
Nobel Prize for Literature: Elias Canetti, 1981 (British citizen, for his life´s work: writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power).
Nobel Prize for Economic Sciences: Friedrich August Hayek, 1974 (British citizen, for his pioneering work in the theory of money and economic fluctuations).
Literature: D. Stenzel, Das große Lexikon der Nobelpreisträger, 1992.
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