Psychiatric hospitals: Until the end of the 18th century psychiatric patients were kept in penitentiaries; under Joseph II the "Fools´ Tower" ("Narrenturm") was built on the grounds of Vienna´s Old General Hospital as the first attempt to establish some kind of care for psychiatric patients with increasing emphasis on the medical aspect. In 1853 use of the Narrenturm ceased, and in 1848-1853 the Lower Austrian provincial psychiatric hospital in Vienna´s 9th district was opened. Subsequently the pavilion-like Lower Austrian provincial hospital for the treatment and care of psychiatric patients "Am Steinhof" (today the Psychiatric Hospital of the City of Vienna, located at Baumgartner Höhe) was established in 1903-1907 with the co-operation of H. Schlöss and J. Starlinger, both psychiatric physicians (church built by O. Wagner). In the course of the 19th century psychiatric hospitals were established in all Austrian provinces, which, in addition to university clinics for psychiatry, provide most of the in-patient psychiatric care in Austria. Since the mid-70s Austria's psychiatric hospitals have been updating their facilities to conform to modern psychiatric treatment methods, focusing on openness, decentralisation, out-patient forms of treatment (in-patient treatment has been drastically reduced) and increased emphasis on social-psychiatric services, which are mainly provided on an out-patient or partially in-patient basis. The organisation of psychiatric hospitals and reform efforts in this field differ from province to province, but follow a uniform trend. In the last few decades, the Lower Austrian Psychiatric Hospital in Gugging has attained an excellent reputation for its efforts to promote artistic activities among its patients ("Haus der Künstler").
Literature: P. Berner et al., Zur Geschichte der Psychiatrie in Wien, 1983.