Concrete Poetry, movement within modern poetry which uses the phonetic, visual, and acoustic dimensions of language as a literary medium. These so-called material characteristics of language are also used artistically by means of various techniques such as montage, variation, isolation, sequence, and repetition, the permutation of words, syllables, or morphemes, the graphic arrangement of the text, and the reading aloud of the poem. Concrete poetry developed in the mid-1950s. The most important representatives of this genre in Austria are E. Jandl, the members of the Wiener Gruppe, Oswald Wiener, G. Rühm, and F. Achleitner.
Literature: K. P., Text und Kritik 25, 1970; E. Gomringer, Zur Sache der Konkreten, 2 vols., 1988.