Leopoldsberg Hill, alt. 425 m, hill in the 19th district of Vienna, originally Kahlenberg (mons calvus) hill, north-eastern foothills of the Alps, geologically part of Flysch Zone, look-out mountain located in the Vienna Woods. Slopes steeply down to the Danube. Grave finds of the urnfield culture (around 1300-1200 B.C., discovered in 1935) and a Celtic settlement from the 2nd century B.C. (exposed in 1994) are evidence of early settlement. A castle on Leopoldsberg built in the 13th century was destroyed in 1529 to prevent the approaching Turks from occupying it, the patronage of the chapel, which was originally dedicated to St. George, was moved to the Kahlenbergerdorf village. The main castle was of similar size as the present walled-in area. Around 1679 Emperor Leopold I founded a new church with 4 cross arms around a central dome, and the site was renamed "Leopoldsberg". Damaged in 1683, the church was renovated between 1718-1730 by A. Beduzzi and was enlarged by a porch and front towers. Desecrated under Joseph II, it was re-consecrated in 1798 by Klosterneuburg Abbey. It contains documentation on the relieving battle during the Turkish siege on Vienna in 1683. The castle built in 1718 was destroyed by fire in 1891. In 1877 a steep winding foot path was built leading from the Kahlenbergerdorf to Leopoldsberg and in 1935 the Höhenstraße (scenic highway) leading from Kahlenberg hill was constructed. The church was damaged in 1945 during the war and was later rebuilt.