k. k., k. u. k.
k. k. and k. u. k. ("kaiserlich-königlich" and "kaiserlich und königlich") The abbreviation k. k. (kaiserlich stands for imperial, königlich for royal) was already used in the 18th century. After the Compromise (Ausgleich) of 1867 k.k. was used for and comprised agencies and institutions in the western part of the Habsburg empire ("kingdoms and lands represented in the Reichsrat") but not for the eastern part, the kingdom of Hungary ("königlich-ungarisch" = Royal Hungarian". The abbreviation k. u. k. was used for institutions and agencies common to the two parts of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy (i.e. the army, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Finance), as illustrated by the following examples: k. k. Landwehr (militia), Royal Hungarian Honved (militia), k. u. k. Armed Forces.