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Austrofaschismus


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Austrofascism: Demonstration of the Vaterländische Jugend (Österreichisches Jungvolk) in Tulln 1934. Left: K. Schuschnigg in the uniform of the Ostmärkische Sturmscharen. Right: Federal Chancellor E. Dollfuß.



Austro-Fascism, term for the system of government established in Austria in 1933/1934, developed and supported by the circles around the Heimwehr para-military force and young Christian Socialist politicians. Influenced by the Mussolini's fascism in Italy and backed by political Catholicism and the theories of O. Spann, Austro-Fascism replaced the democratic constitution and parlamentarianism with an authoritarian system. The Korneuburger Programm of June 18, 1930 was the first document to describe Austro-Fascism, and from March 1933 until February 1934 Federal Chancellor E. Dollfuß pursued this authoritarian course against Social Democrats, completing it with the constitution of May 1, 1934. Until 1938 the Corporate State was largely characterised by Austro-Fascism. The term was originally coined by its opponents, mainly Social Democrats, but it also found its way into academic discourse.


Further reading: E. Tálos and W. Neugebauer (eds.), Austrofaschismus, Beiträge über Politik, Ökonomie und Kultur 1934-38, 41988; L. O. Meysels, Der Austrofaschismus, 1992.


 
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