Civil Alternative Service, alternative to military service, for all persons liable for military service (Federal Armed Forces) but who refuse to use force of arms against other people, introduced in 1975; since 1992 the applicants´ motivation (refusal on grounds of conscience) has not been subject to review by the Civil Alternative Service Commission. Civil alternative service consists in rendering services for the general public (in hospitals, rescue service, social aid, etc.) over a period of 12 months (since 1997). Civil Alternative Service was introduced in response to demands by youth associations and the Peace Movement as an alternative for conscientious objectors invoking their fundamental right of the freedom of conscience. In 1998 the number of persons applying civil alternative military service amounted to some 9,185 (about 22.9 % of all persons liable for military service).
Literature: P. Fessler et al., Zivildienstrecht, 1989.