Marie Louise Maria Ludovika, Maria Luigia
Duchess Marie Louise of Parma, lithograph by J. Kriehuber, 1843
Marie Louise (Maria Ludovika, Maria Luigia), b. Vienna, Dec. 12, 1791, d. Parma (Italy), Dec. 17, 1847, Empress of France, Duchess of Parma, eldest daughter of Emperor Franz II (I), 1810 married Napoleon I, mother of the Duke of Reichstadt. 1814 returned to Vienna with her son. Was granted the Duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla in Northern Italy by the Vienna Congress, where she reigned from 1816 onwards. She married her Lord Steward, Count A. A. Neipperg, in 1821; after his death she married Count C.-R. Bombelles. In Parma she proved an excellent ruler, among other things commissioned the construction of the "Teatro Regio".
Literature: C. F. Palmstierna (ed.), M. L. und Napoleon. Die unveröffentlichten Briefe, 1960; M. Schiel, M. L. Eine Habsburgerin für Napoleon, 1983; F. Herre, M. L. Napoleon war ihr Schicksal, 1996; ÖBL; NDB.