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Jupiter Symphony: 3rd movement (Molto Allegro)

Form scheme
4th movement
The 4th movement of the Jupiter symphony is entitled Finale. This movement is unique among all the works of occidental music, not so much by the singularity of the themes, but by their elaboration, which has no parallel in the history of music. Wherever can we find a composition with 5 themes that are all confronted at the end of the movement, so that they sound up all together and yet can be interchanged without offending the classical sense of harmony? This is a combination of baroque achievements with those of the classical period, thus forming a new unity between homophony (classicism) and counterpoint (baroque).
The structure of the 4th movement of the Jupiter symphony is the classical sonata form with some fugue sections, in which the baroque fugue and the classical technique of elaboration are combined to achieve new sonorous effects.

bars 1-24
The main theme of the 4th movement - similar to the theme of the 1st movement - is formed by 2 distinctive motifs, representing 2 opposing principles. The front part, the first 4 bars of the theme stand for the contrapuntal principle of the past - the theme can be deducted to Gregorian melodic elements - whereas the tail part, bars 5-8, resembles a dance and represents the homophonic, modern classical principle. One can also say that this theme incorporates both the metaphysical as well as the realistic, human side of Mozart’s music.
The theme is introduced and carried on with the head of the main theme. It leads immediately to the second theme, whose musical substance is the C major scale.

bars 36-74
In the first bridge, a musical section between main theme and secondary theme, Mozart uses the first 4 bars of the main theme as theme of a fugato. This is a fugue-like section contained in a movement that is not composed as a fugue. The 2nd violin sets in with the theme, followed by the 1st violin, the viola, the celli and double bass. Then a 3rd theme is introduced, a brief musical subject with a quaver. This theme is used in stretto, i.e. during ist introduction it sounds up immediately in another voice. There is a confrontation between the violins and the bass strings. The end of the bridge is played in stretto with the 2nd theme.

bars 74-86
The secondary theme, a humble theme in G major (also called 4th theme) is characterised by a juxtaposition of 3 other themes (2nd, 3rd and a new 5th one). Because of its brevity it should just be called a motif - a small meaningful musical element.

bars 94-110
In the second bridge Mozart uses the head motif of the secondary theme, i.e. the 1st and the 2nd bar of the theme until the theme recurs 4 times in stretto, which means that the theme is each time imitated by another voice. This also means that each voice has a leading function, that each voice has an equal position. Supreme contrapuntal mastership in classical garb.

In the epilogue there appears a 2-bar motif. A closer inspection reveals that this motif is derived from the 5th and 6th bars of the main theme.

Immediately before starting the development, as a kind of coda of the epilogue, Mozart uses the 2nd theme once again, which occurs in stretto as well as mirrored.

After this concentrated thematic exposition and elaboration the development serves as a point of rest or a transition to the recapitulation. The first to appear is the head of the main theme, succeeded by the 2nd theme, the scale theme.

Immediately after, the structure of the 2nd bridge in the exposition is resumed. Whereas then the secondary theme was played 4 times in stretto, something similar is done now with the 2nd (main) theme. Every voice becomes a leading voice, the theme is mirrored, the main theme is used as an interpolation. Mozart proves to be a contrapuntal composer who is supreme master of the polyphonic technique.

The recapitulation literally takes up the material of the exposition. Changes are effected by using the root key C major for all themes and by a recombination with the head of the main theme (reminding of the motivic work in the first bridge).

bars 385-424
In its contrapuntal art the Coda represents the climax of the work, which is the reason why the symphony has been called "The Jupiter".
All the themes are played simultaneously in different instruments and are even interchanged, i.e. the head of the main theme, played in the 1st violin, becomes the bass voice, so that all the other themes move a step higher up. Double bass becomes cello, cello viola, viola 2nd violin, 2nd violin 1st violin.
There are numerous composers who at the end of a work manage to juxtapose 2, 3, or even 4 voices, so as to create the climax of a finale. What is unique in the history of music is the drawing together of 5 themes as it is done at the end of the Jupiter symphony. Supreme polyphonic art is hidden in classical sound. From both elements, classical and baroque art, the synthesis of the Jupiter symphony was created.

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