King Rudolf I, engraving, 18th century
Rudolf I, b. Limburg castle (Breisgau, Germany), May 1, 1218, d. Speyer (Germany), July 15, 1291, Count of Habsburg, from 1273 German king, his election ended the interregnum. Demanded of Otakar II Přemysl the return of the Austrian Länder (territories) and defeated him on August 26, 1278 on the Marchfeld. to make his dynasty more powerful he enfeoffed his sons Albrecht I and Rudolf II with Austria and Styria on Dec. 27, 1282, thus creating the basis for the rule of the Habsburgs in Austria. His coronation as emperor, although planned, ultimately did not take place.
Literature: O. Redlich, R. v. Habsburg, 1903; J. Franzl, R. Der erste Habsburger auf dem deutschen Thron, 1986; E. Boshof and F. R. Erkens (eds.), R. v. Habsburg, 1993.