Proportional Democracy, political system with the proportional participation of certain social or political groups (parties) in the government. 7 of the 9 Austrian provincial governments have enshrined the proportional system in their provincial constitutions. Proportional Democracy was particularly important to overcome the trauma of the 1934 Civil War and to ensure cooperation in the reconstruction of the country after the end of World War II. The principle of majority rule was abandoned and decisions were made by compromise or mutual condition ("package deal"). Resulting disadvantages are, for instance, the emergence of an elite cartel, the weakening of Parliament, diminished competition and control, failure to resolve problems and lack of innovation. The period of the "Grand Coalition" between the ÖVP and SPÖ from 1945 until 1966 was especially characterized by Proportional Democracy.