Ottokar II., Přemysl
King Přemysl Ottokar II. Königssaal annals, Prague
Otakar II, Prěmysl (also known as Ottokar), b. around 1230, d. near Dürnkrut (Lower Austria), Aug. 26, 1278, Margrave of Moravia, 1251 Duke of Austria, 1253 King of Bohemia, 1261 Duke of Styria, 1269 Duke of Carinthia and Carniola. Was made Duke in 1251 by the estate officials of Austria, married Margarete in 1252, sister of the last Babenberg Friedrich II, but divorced her in 1261. Took Styria from Hungary and founded the towns of Marchegg, Bruck an der Mur, Leoben and Radkersburg in order to strengthen his power. In Vienna started to build the Imperial Palace and St. Stephen's Cathedral. The separation of Upper Austria from Lower Austria began in this period.
Initially a mild ruler, from 1265 O. ruled with rigour (Seifried von Mahrenberg), causing many nobles to change sides to the newly elected German king Rudolf I von Habsburg from 1273. Since he did not ask for enfeoffment, was dispossessed of the territories of the Babenbergs and Sponheims; in Nov. 1276 submitted near Vienna, but started war against Rudolf again in 1278, suffering defeat on August 26, 1278, at the battle of Marchfeld between Dürnkrut and Jedenspeigen. He was killed while trying to escape.
Literature: A. Kusternig, Die Zeit König O. in Österreich, 1978; Ottokar-Forschungen, Jahrbuch für Landeskunde von Niederösterreich, NF 44/45, 1979; J. K. Hoensch, Přemysl Otakar II. von Böhmen, 1989; J. Kuthan, P. O. Kg., Bauherr und Mäzen, 1996.