Hainburg an der Donau
Hainburg: Wiener Tor portal
Hainburg an der Donau, Lower Austria, town in the district of Bruck an der Leitha, alt. 161 m, pop. 5,752, area 25.05 km2, easternmost town of Lower Austria, on the right bank of the River Danube, in the Hainburger Pforte gap between the Hundsheimer Berge hills and Kleine Karpaten mountains, close to the border with Slovakia; bridge over the River Danube (since 1973). - Employment Services, customs office, Marc-Aurel-Kaserne barracks, Chamber of Labour, district Chamber of Farmers, hospital, Volkshilfe welfare organisation, golf course, theatre festival at the fortress (since 1977, June- September); high-level services (about 64 % of all employed persons 1991; particularly personal, social and public services as well as commerce); production of tobacco products (from 1723 Austria-Tabak-Werke) and cigarette filters, some tourism. Earliest settlement in the Neolithic period (Braunsberg), remains of medieval fortification (walled circle and towers from the 13th century) in good condition: the Wiener Tor portal (around 1270 and after 1529) is one of the most important portals of its kind, today houses museum of local history and culture (with archaeological finds); Ungartor portal (around 1260, attic storey 15th century); Fischertor portal (around 1330). On the Schloßberg mountain (290 m) above the town lies a medieval fortress (established 1043, mentioned in the Nibelungenlied under the name of "Heimburc") with remains of the fortification, the great hall (12th -13th centuries) and the chapel (12th century), several alterations until the 18th century. Parish church with Baroque elements (first documented mention 1236), around 1700 Baroque extension, high altar (1713), dodecagonal baptismal font (beginning of 16th century); Romanesque charnel house (1st half of 13th century) with richly-moulded round-arch portal, lantern (14th century) next to it; late-Baroque column dedicated to the Virgin Mary (1749) on the main square; Haydn-Brunnen fountain (1932, consisting of Renaissance base and Baroque basin); Gothic and Renaissance town houses (arcaded courtyards) and houses from the 18th -19th centuries. In December 1984 demonstrations in and occupation of the Hainburg Au riverine wetland area to avoid the construction of a hydro-electric power plant on the River Danube (Occupation of Hainburg-Au).
Literature: Österreichisches Städtebuch, vol. IV, part 2, Die Städte Niederösterreichs, 1976.
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