Fascism, originally the name adopted by the political movement in Italy which established a dictatorial regime under B. Mussolini in 1922; later, the term came to be used to designate all antidemocratic and anti-Marxist systems of government and ideologies after the First World War, including National Socialism. With variations from country to country, fascism was characterised by nationalistic and militarist dictatorships that used violent means to achieve their objectives and suppressed democracy and its ideas and institutions (rule of law, pluralism, tolerance, civil rights, multiparty parliament). Italian fascism influenced the ideology of parts of the Austrian Heimwehr and, from April 1933, the policies of Federal Chancellor E. Dollfuß, which were aimed at abolishing democracy in Austria Austro-Fascism), and in subsequent years Austria's foreign policy (Protocols of Rome of March 17, 1934. Additional Protocol of March 23, 1936, Austria's non-participation in the sanctions adopted by the League of Nations on October 9, 1935 against Italy because of that country's Abyssinian campaign).
Literature: F. L. Carsten, Faschismus in Österreich, 1978; P. Dusek et al. (ed.), Faschismus-Theorien, Fallstudien, Unterrichtsmodelle, 1980.