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Eisenstadt: mountain church on the Calvary.
Eisenstadt, Burgenland, district of Eisenstadt, town with statutory privileges, alt. 182 m, pop. 10,349, area 42.90 km2, capital of the province of Burgenland on the southern escarpment of the Leithagebirge; free town since 1648. - Seat of the provincial government, provincial diet and all provincial and district authorities ( e.g. school authorities, rural police administration etc.), provincial Employment Services, district building and construction office, fiscal authorities, office of weights, measures and surveying, federal police station, federal building authority, supreme police authorities, provincial library and provincial archives, provincial observatory, federal institute of viniculture, federal wine inspectorate, central administration of the Burgenland Elektrizitätswirtschafts AG, prison, St. Martin barracks, bar association, medical association, chamber of pharmacists, chamber of agriculture, economic chamber, chamber of labour, Burgenland farmers´ association, provincial tourist association, various social insurance institutions, health and social insurance offices, Burgenland provincial museum including a "Wine Museum", Haydn Museum in the house where he once lived, Provincial Art Gallery, diocesan museum; Austrian Jewish museum (with synagogue) in the district of Eisenstadt-Unterberg, which used to be predominantly Jewish (1671-1938); provincial fire brigade museum, Europahaus Eisenstadt centre, consulates, Kolpinghaus (founded by the priest A. Kolping, today one of the largest organisations of hostels for young people and the needy), venue for cultural events and congresses, multi-purpose sports hall, Eisenstadt-Trausdorf airfield, sports centre, educational centre, WIFI - Wirtschaftsförderungsinstitut; various schools: Gymnasium and Bundesgymnasium secondary schools, private upper-level Gymnasium school, Gymnasium of the diocese of Eisenstadt, commercial academy (Handelsakademie), commercial school (Handelsschule), advanced-level technical school (Höhere Technische Lehranstalt), advanced-level federal school (Höhere Bundeslehranstalt), commercial vocational school (Fachschule für wirtschaftliche Berufe), pedagogic academy (Pädagogische Akademie) and pedagogical institute (Pädagogisches Institut), Theresianum (schools of the Sisters of the Divine Saviour), religious-instruction teacher training institute, vocational school of agriculture, Fachhochschule, vocational school, adult education centre, adult education centre for Croats in Burgenland, Federal boarding school, Joseph Haydn Conservatoire. Cultural events include Burgenland Haydn festival (Esterházy Palace) and Burgenland wine weeks. Diocesan authorities, hospital and nurses´ home of the Fathers of Charity are also located in Eisenstadt. Most companies offer services (about 77 % of the 10,053 workforce in 1991), especially personal, social and public services; banks and insurance firms, telecommunications companies, commerce, trade, trade park, technology centre; only few production companies: production of laminates (synthetic coatings and springs), steel works and mechanical engineering, wood processing. Wine whole-sale businesses (most important wine market in the province of Burgenland), tourism (61,623 overnight stays), fruit growing.
History: Settlement on Burgstallberg mountain dating back to the Hallstatt period, Roman settlement (burial site on the grounds where the barracks are situated today), in 1264 mentioned in a document as "minor Mortin" (Hungarian "Kismarton"), in 1373 mentioned as "Eisenstat", 1388 market town. 1445 acquired by Archduke Albrecht VI, then for almost 200 years owned by the Habsburgs, in 1622 it was pledged, in 1648 Eisenstadt was acquired by the Esterházy family; in 1648 Eisenstadt was granted the rank of a royal Hungarian free town. In 1921 Burgenland (and Eisenstadt) became part of Austrian territory; became the provincial capital in 1925, bishopric since 1960.
Buildings: Cathedral church (1460-1522), late Gothic church, formerly fortified, Baroque decoration, 1903/1904 redecorated in Gothic style, 1952-1963 renovation and alterations; stained-glass windows by F. Deed and M. Bilger; Franciscan church with former monastery (built in 1625-1629), Esterházy tomb in east tract of the monastery (1560, façade built after 1648); town hall, Esterházy palace (probably built 1388-1392 as a castle), extension 1663-1672 by C. M. Carlone, at the end of the 18th century partly rebuilt in Classicist style by C. de Moreau, banqueting hall or "Haydn hall", show rooms, castle gardens (1805-1820), plague monument (1713). In Eisenstadt-Oberberg, artificial Mount Calvary with pilgrimage chapel (1705) and Chapel of the Holy Cross, mountain church (started in 1715) with mausoleum of J. Haydn (1932 endowed by Prince Esterházy); church, monastery and hospital of the Fathers of Charity (18th century). Late Gothic fortified church in Kleinhöflein.
Coat of arms of Eisenstadt.
Eisenstadt: 1 Town parish-church in St. Martin - 2 Franciscan church - 4 Esterházy Palace - 5 Town hall - 6 Museum of the Province of Burgenland - 7 Haydn´s house - 8 Haydn´s summer-house - 9 Wertheimer-House - 10 Jewish cemetery
Literature: Allgemeine Landestopographie des Burgenlandes, vol. 2: Der Verwaltungsbezirk Eisenstadt und die Freistädte Eisenstadt und Rust, 1963; Österreichisches Städtebuch, vol. II, Burgenland, 1970.
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