UNO, United Nations Organization
UNO (UN), United Nations Organisation (German:Organisation der Vereinten Nationen), founded in San Francisco on June 26, 1945 by 51 states as successor to the League of Nations with the object of maintaining world peace; by 1978 the number of member states had already increased to 150, by 1998 to 185. UN head offices are in New York (headquarters), Geneva, Vienna and Nairobi; Vienna is host to the International Atomic Energy Organisation (IAEO), the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO), the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), drugs programmes etc. The purposes of the United Nations are formulated in the Preamble to its Charter. The United Nations has a number of organs and specialised agencies. The General Assembly is the central political consultative organ. The Security Council is the most significant organ of the UN, it is the primary organ responsible for securing world peace and takes decisions that are binding on all UN members; it consists of five permanent members, who are vested with veto power (USA, Russia, United Kingdom, France and China) and 10 non-permanent members to be elected for period of two years. From 1971 to 1981 the Austrian, K. Waldheim was Secretary-General of the United Nations.
UN peace-keeping forces (Blue Berets) have been deployed by the Security Council in peace-keeping missions since 1948 (UN Missions).
Austria acceded to the UNO on December 14, 1955 and was a member of the Security Council from 1973-1974 and from 1991-1992. In 1960 it submitted the South Tyrol issue to the United Nations for settlement. Alongside its participation in peace-keeping operations and disarmament talks Austria has in particular focused on humanitarian issues. Austria's financial contribution to the UN budget (1998: $ 1.1 billion) amounts to 0.94 %.
Literature: R. Wolfrum (ed.), Handbuch Vereinte Nationen, 21991; A. Verdroß and B. Simma, Universelles Völkerrecht, 21992; G. Unser, Die UNO, 61997.
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