Salzburg (City of), province of Salzburg, district of Salzburg, chartered town, alt. 424 m, pop. 143,978 (1981: pop. 139,426), area 65.64 km2, provincial capital of Salzburg province and fourth-largest city of Austria, located where the Salzach Valley widens to form the Salzburg Basin, at the northern fringe of the Alps; the River Salzach flows right through the city, flanked by the Kapuzinerberg (alt. 638 m), Mönchsberg (alt. 508 m) and Gaisberg (alt. 1,287 m) hills. - Seat of the provincial government and all provincial (schools authority, rural police headquarters) and district authorities; provincial and district court and prisons, district commission, provincial finance directorate, public security directorate for Salzburg, builder´s yard of the regional management for torrent and avalanche control, Labour Market Service (Arbeitsmarktservice, AMS), revenue office, hallmarking office, office of weights, measures and surveying, customs office with branch offices and customs post, branch office of the Austrian Central Bank, provincial studio of the ORF (Austrian Broadcasting Corporation), local office of the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (Central Institute of Meteorology and Geodynamics), Federal Office for Civil Aviation, Bundesdenkmalamt (Federal Office for the Protection of Monuments) and Federal Asylum Office, Federal Police Directorate, branches of the Federal Environment Office and Federal Centre for Food Testing, Federal Research Centre for Bacteriology and Serology, Bautechnische Versuchs-und Forschungsanstalt (building technology testing and research centre), Salzburg Military Command, head office of Post und Telekom Austria AG, economic chamber, chamber of labour, district chamber of agricultural and allied workers, district chamber of agriculture and other chambers and representative organisations of various professional groups, German Chamber of Commerce in Austria, Berufsförderungsinstitut Österreich (BFI), Berufsinformationszentrum (career information centre), provincial hospitals, provincial psychiatric hospital, Arbeitsunfallkrankenhaus (special hospital for occupational accidents), Diakonissenkrankenhaus hospital, hospital of the Brothers of Mercy (Brothers Hospitallers), special hospital for alcohol and drug addicts, day-care unit, tuberculosis prevention and treatment centre, regional health insurance agency with dental clinic, alcoholics counselling centre, assistance and consultation service for AIDS victims, school psychological educational guidance centre, youth counselling service and other counselling and auxiliary services, Sozialpädagogisches Zentrum (training centre for social workers), vocational training centre for the mentally handicapped (Pro mente infirmis), Office for Women´s Issues of the province of Salzburg, Women's Office of the City of Salzburg, women´s refuge, Caritas, Pro Juventute Österreich, Haus der Jugend, international youth centre, several local youth centres, youth and educational centre of the chamber of labour, St. Virgil educational centre, SOS-Kinderdorf, Österrreichische Kinderfreunde, Nonntal sports centre, Alpenstraße sports hall and Riedenburg sports hall, Lehen Stadium; Archdiocese of Salzburg, numerous monasteries and convents, congregations and mission houses, Protestant superintendency, Old Catholic Church, Baptist Community, Methodists, Russian, Romanian and Serbian Orthodox Communities, Islamic culture centre, Jewish Community, Buddhist Community, Free Christian Community, Jehovah´s Witnesses, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, consulates, French cultural institute and other international cultural institutes and cultural exchange institutions, "Mozarteum" - Universität für Musik und darstellende Kunst (University of Music and Performing Arts), University of Salzburg, University of Portland Center, University of Redlands; various types of secondary schools: 2 Bundesoberrealgymnasium, 4 Bundesgymnasium and Bundesrealgymnasium, Bundesgymnasium für Berufstätige, Bundesrealgymnasium, Wirtschaftkundliches Realgymnasium, Akademisches Gymnasium, Abendgymnasium, private Gymnasium (Sisters of Mercy of St. Charles of Borromeo, Ursuline Sisters, missionaries of the Sacred Heart);American International Schools, Waldorf school, adult education centre, 9 vocational schools, 2 commercial academies, commercial academy for employed persons run by the Chamber of Labour, federal advanced-level school of alpine dairy farming and commercial professions, upper secondary school of engineering, Akademie für Sozialarbeit für Berufstätige der Arbeiterkammer (evening academy for social work run by the chamber of Labour), Caritas School for Social Services, School for Geriatric and Nursing Care, Bundeshebammenlehranstalt (federal school for midwives), Allgemeine Krankenpflegeschule (general school for nursing care), training institute for kindergarten teachers (private), teacher training college and federal training college for school teachers, academy for the training of religious education teachers and institute run by the Archdiocese, provincial institute for the auditively challenged; provincial institute for folklore studies, European Academy of Sciences and Arts, International Congress Academy, International Summer Academy for the Fine Arts, Academia Scientiarum et Artium Europaea and other international educational institutions, numerous public and religious educational centres, Förderstelle des Bundes für Erwachsenenbildung (federal office for the promotion of adult education), 4 Ludwig-Boltzmann Institutes, Salzburg Technology Centre, International Research Centre for Basic Questions of Science, Institute for Molecular Biology (Austrian Academy of Sciences), Paracelsus Research Institute for Physiology and Biophysics, Institute for Applied Psychology and Psychotherapy, Austrian Institute for Legal Policy, Austrian Institute for Human Rights and other public and private institutes, Mozarteum university library, local lending library, municipal lending library, university library, International Library for Questions of the Future, Diocesan Library and Seminary Library; museum of the Haus der Natur (National Park Institute), Salzburg Museum Carolino Augusteum (to which the toy museum, castle museum and cathedral excavations museum belong) museum of folklore in Monatsschlößl at Hellbrunn, cathedral museum, Residenzgalerie, art collections of the province of Salzburg Rupertinum), Baroque museum, Mozart museum, Mozart´s birthplace, Mozart´s residence and Mozart archives, Künstlerhaus, Literaturhaus Eizenberghof, Rockhouse, Nonntal Cultural Area (Kulturgelände Nonntal), Lainerhof Local Customs Centre, research and memorial centre for G. Trakl, C. Doppler and M. Haydn; Archives of the Province of Salzburg, Archives of the City of Salzburg, archives of the archiepiscopate; Hellbrunn Zoo; numerous theatres: Provincial Theatre (Landestheater), Kleines Theater, Elisabethbühne, Salzburger Marionettentheater, Salzburger Kinder- und Jugendtheater, Theater am Mirabellplatz ("TOI Haus"); exhibition centre (trade fairs), "Das Kino" (Salzburg film centre), Europahaus, a great variety of cultural and musical events, especially the Salzburg University Weeks, Festungskonzerte (concerts at the castle), Szene (international theatre and dance festival), Easter Festival, "Salzburg Barock" (at Whitsun), Mozart Weeks. Salzburg-Maxglan Airport (with customs office, customs post, etc.), 5 heating companies of the Austrian District Heating Association, power stations, district heating companies, gasworks, hydroelectric power plants and the storage power stations Strubklammkraftwerk (built in 1924, 15 MW, municipality of Faistenau) and Wiestalkraftwerk (built 1913, 24 MW, municipality of Adnet) of the Stadtwerke Salzburg, Salzburg central station, Salzburg-Gnigl, Salzburg-Aigen, Lehen and Itzling railway stations; Festungsbahn Hohensalzburg (funicular railway) run by the Stadtwerke, editorial offices and/or branch offices of "Salzburger Nachrichten", "Salzburger Volkszeitung" "Salzburger Woche", "Salz" (Salzburg literary newspaper), "Salzburger Landeszeitung", "Salzburger Stadtanzeiger", "Salzburger Stadtblick", "Salzburger Fenster" and other national dailies.
Economy: 89,326 inhabitants in gainful employment (1991), about 79 % in the services industry (personal, social and public services, trade, tourism - 1,725,224 overnight stays in 1992); the production sector is dominated by the food, beverage and tobacco industries (breweries, spices, bread), iron and metal processing industries (vehicles, ironware and metal goods, metal fittings), electrical, textile and clothes manufacturing industries, construction, timber and woodworking industries (in particular furniture), gas and district heating companies.
History: The area around the city of Salzburg has been settled since the New Stone Age (Kapuzinerberg hill, Bürglstein Mountain, Rainberg Mountain, Siezenheim, Kleßheim, Liefering, Rott and Hellbrunnerberg Mountain). At the time of the Celts there were settlements on the Kapuzinerberg, Bürglstein, Festungsberg and Rainberg mountains, but when the Romans took over the rule in 15 B.C. these settlements were replaced by a town on the left bank of the River Salzach: Ivavo (=Celtic, in Latin: Iuvavum) received the right of municipality under Emperor Claudius around 45 A.D. After the end of Roman rule, the earliest records of a Christian community and a monastery date back to the late 5th century. Parts of the Roman-Celtic population lived on the fortified Nonnberg terrace until the Early Middle Ages. Bishop Rupert of Worms, who came to Salzburg around 696/700, received the remains of the Roman town from the Bavarian duke as a gift and founded Saint Peter´s Monastery and a convent on Nonnberg Mountain, which is the oldest nunnery north of the Alps today.
First documented mention of the German name Salzburg around 755. Salzburg became an episcopal see in 739 when the Bavarian dioceses were established by St. Boniface and was raised to the rank of Archdiocese and Metropolitan See of the Bavarian church province by Pope Leo III in 798. The city developed into a centre of art and culture under the Irish Bishop Virgil (746/747-784). The Michaelskirche church which became Salzburg´s first parish church in the 11th century and St. Mary´s church (parish church since 1139, now Franziskanerkirche) were built in the 8th century. Emperor Otto III granted the city the right to hold markets (including market police and market court), the right to levy tolls and the right of coinage in 996; with the appointment of a "Stadtrichter" (municipal judge) and a Bürgerzeche (corporation of burghers) in the 12th century (the oldest known Bürgerzeche in the German-speaking area), Salzburg became a town and is thus the oldest town in Austria.
Archbishop Gebhard established Hohensalzburg Castle in 1077; parts were later destroyed, but the castle was rebuilt by Archbishop Konrad I (1105-1147). In the fight against Emperor Friedrich I Barbarossa parts of Salzburg went up in flames during the night of April 4,1167. The first city wall was erected in 1121 and in 1278 a second wall was built around the town centre and the district on the right bank of the River Salzach, another circular wall was built when the town was enlarged between 1465 and 1480. The earliest city charter dates from 1287. During the 15th century the bourgeoisie, which had become wealthy by trading, commissioned numerous works of art.
Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau (1587-1612) started to transform the narrow late Gothic town into a "German Rome". He wanted to realise the "ideal town" according to the ideas of the Venetian architect V. Scamozzi, with large squares around the cathedral, and had 55 burghers´ houses pulled down. However, Scamozzi´s high-flown plans came to nothing after fires and the demolition of the Romanesque cathedral. Wolf Dietrich had the new Residenz built with magnificent stucco ceilings and Sebastiansfriedhof cemetery with St. Gabriel chapel (both by E. Castello) and erected Altenau Palace for his lifetime companion Salome Alt. Under his successors Marcus Sitticus (1612-1619) and Paris Lodron (1619-1653) S. Solari from Verna became the masterbuilder of Salzburg in the Early Baroque. He created the cathedral (consecrated in 1628), the summer residence of Hellbrunn Palace with fountains, trick fountains and a park, and he also built the fortifications during the Thirty Years´ War. The Italian Baroque style, as represented by G. Zucalli with the Kajetanerkirche church and the Erhardskirche church in Nonntal valley, was followed in Salzburg by the Austrian Baroque of the late 17th century under Archbishop J. E. Graf Thun (1687-1709). J. B. Fischer von Erlach designed "Mirabellgarten" (park of Mirabell Palace), the Hofmarstall (stables) with the Pferdeschwemme (horse-pond) and Felsenreitschule, the Dreifaltigkeitskirche (Trinity Church) with seminary, the Universitätskirche church (Kollegienkirche church) and the Ursulinenkirche church, Johannesspital hospital and Kleßheim Palace. His great rival of the time was J. L. v. Hildebrandt, who built the splendid Mirabell Palace (large parts destroyed by fire in 1818). In 1736 the circle of chateaux de plaisance around the city of Salzburg was closed by the construction of Leopoldskron Palace; the "Neutor" tunnel (1764-1767) connected the suburb of Riedenburg and the old historic city centre.
After the abbey had been secularised, Salzburg became the residence of the Electorate of Salzburg (Ferdinand III of Tuscany); in 1806 it was incorporated into Austria for the first time and thereby lost its independence. The economy stagnated under Bavarian rule (1810-1816) and the Benedictine University, founded in 1622, was closed; when Salzburg was incorporated into the land "ob der Enns" (above the River Enns) under the Habsburgs, it went through a period of harsh recession. The superior authorities in Linz (Oberlandesgericht, Federal Railways Directorate etc.) date back to this time. It was only after the crownland of Salzburg was established in 1850 and 1861, when the Western Railway was opened in 1860, Salzburg became a chartered town in 1869, and, in particular, when the prohibition to undertake construction work on the area of fortifications was lifted and Emperor Franz Josef I donated the fortifications to the city in1860, that it experienced a revival. Many ramparts, trenches and town gates were demolished, the River Salzach was regulated and the "Neustadt" (new part of town) on the right bank of the River Salzach was designed around Mirabell Palace (Franz-Josef-Straße). Elisabeth-Vorstadt (Froschheim) Itzling and Lehen were built as new districts in the late 19th century. In 1935 and 1939 Maxglan and Gnigl were incorporated into the municipality of Salzburg, later Aigen, Leopoldskron, Morzg and Lieferung followed. During the Second World War more than 40 % of the buildings were destroyed or heavily damaged in the course of 15 American air raids.
Tourism, which had started in the 19th century, was given fresh impetus with the founding of the Salzburg Festival (first "Jedermann" performance held in 1920). The Mozarteum and the reopened university can be regarded as the most prominent cultural and academic facilities in Salzburg ;a model law on the preservation and revitalisation of city centres (Altstadterhaltungsgesetz) and the preservation of a green belt in the southern part of the city is also a significant new development. As the urban economy is mainly characterised by trade and services, there are hardly any factory buildings.
In 1997 the old part of the city of Salzburg was placed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Religious buildings: Cathedral: Bishop Virgil´s Cathedral (consecrated in 772) is believed to have been the coronation church of the Bavarian Duke Tassilo III. Under Cardinal Konrad III one of the largest Romanesque cathedrals (1181-1198) north of the Alps was built, but was later destroyed by fire. Taking the church of Il Gesù in Rome as a model, S. Solari built the still extant Early Baroque cathedral from 1614 until 1628; the towers were erected between 1652 and 1655, the dome, which was 72 m high, was destroyed by a bomb in 1944 and replaced after the Second World War; the Baroque interior was designed by D. Mascagni, I. Solari, G. A. Dario and others; Romanesque baptismal font by Meister Heinrich (1321), organ by C. Egedacher (1703), crypt with burial place of the archbishops; the excavations of remains of the old cathedral have been converted into a museum. Benedictine abbey and collegiate church (Saint Peter´s Monastery). Benedictine nunnery and collegiate church at Nonnberg. Franziskanerkirche church earliest building presumably dates back to the 8th century; parish church from 1139; destroyed by fire in 1167, reconstruction in late Romanesque nave still visible, late Gothic hall-type chancel (built by H. v. Burghausen and S. Krumenauer 1442-1460, commissioned by the burghers), 83 m-high tower (1498), high altar by J. B. Fischer von Erlach (1708) with late Gothic Madonna from the former winged altar by M. Pacher (1498); chancel surrounded by a circle of 9 chapels with works by W. Feistenberger, F. Pereth, C. Lederwasch and J. M. Rottmayr; Rococo choir grille by T. Reckeisen (1780); in the monastery a "Schöne Madonna" of the "weicher Stil" (1420). Kollegienkirche church (Universitätskirche church), most beautiful church building by J. B. Fischer von Erlach in Salzburg (1696-1707), one of the major works of the European Baroque; the façade is unique in the history of architecture; altarpieces by J. M. Rottmayr, sculptures from the studios of J. A. Pfaffinger and M. Guggenbichler. Dreifaltigkeitskirche church (Holy Trinity Church), first Baroque church building by J. B. Fischer von Erlach in Salzburg (1694-1702), dome fresco by J. M. Rottmayr. Markuskirche church (formerly Ursuline church), built between 1699 and 1705 based on plans by J. B. Fischer von Erlach, the monastery buildings were completed in 1726. Johannesspitalkirche church, founded by Archbishop J. E. Thun, built by J. B. Fischer von Erlach between 1699 and 1704, altarpieces by J. M. Rottmayr. Kajetanerkirche church, built by G. Zucalli between 1685 and 1700, dome fresco by P. Troger (1727/1728), altarpieces by Troger and Rottmayr, organ by C. Egedacher (18th century), was monastery church of the Theatines from 1700 until 1809. Erhardskirche church (in Nonntal valley), built between1685 and 1689 by G. Zucalli in place of the former Klosterspitalskirche church of Nonnberg Mountain, high altar painting by J. M. Rottmayr. Michaelskirche church (on Residenzplatz square), documented mention as palace chapel in the 8th century, reconstruction in romanesque style in 1167, Baroque alterations between 1767 and 1773. St. Blasius Bürgerspitalkirche church, built from 1327 until 1350, fitting of a gallery in the western wing in 1428, Epiphany altar by P. Troger, statues of St. John by J. A. Pfaffinger; the relief of St Sebastian (replica, original in the museum Carolino Augusteum) in the north by K. Asper (1614-1620) is from the Linzertor gate. Müllner Kirche church, built in Gothic style between 1439 and 1453 in place of an old chapel of St. Mary, high altar by V. Fischer with altar painting by M. J. Schmidt, more altar paintings by J. M. Rottmayr, stuccowork in early Rococo style (1735-1738) by C. Fenninger. Morzger Kirche church, first documented mention in 1139, western tower (1520), Baroque nave and aisles (1683) with late Gothic winged altar (1480) and frescoes by A. Faistauer (1923). Other suburban churches: parish church of Aigen (1689, extensions 1909-1911); Gnigl (1732-1738); Itzling (1903); Liefering (late Gothic style, large hall with Romanesque core); Maxglan (around 1500, extensions 1952-1956), Parsch (1955/1956).
>Cemeteries: St. Peter´s cemetery with arcades (1626) and Holy Cross chapel (1170, redesigned in 1624), chapel of St. Ägidius with frescoes (around 1420), chapel of St. Margaret (1485-1491), entrance to Catacombs. Cemetery of St. Sebastian with church (1749-1753), laid out between 1595 and 1600, shut down in 1888, chapel of St. Gabriel (1597-1603), tomb of Paracelsus, remarkable monuments in the arcades.
Secular buildings: Residenz: Archbishop Wolf Dietrich began construction in 1595 in the place where the old Bischofshof (bishop´s court) of the 12th century had been located, and the new building was completed under Paris Lodron in 1619. Between 1689 and 1714 the state-rooms were furnished with ceiling frescoes by J. M. Rottmayr and M. Altomonte, supervised by J. L. v. Hildebrandt, stuccowork by F. and C. A. Brennn. In the north-west wing ("Toskanatrakt", 1792), Sala Terrena and a gallery of maps modelled on the Vatican, both date back to the time of Archbishop Wolf Dietrich, unearthed 1990-1995; Residenz gallery with works of European painting from the 16th to the 20th century. Neugebäude ("new building"), built between 1588 and 1603, commissioned by Archbishop Wolf Dietrich, with heavy, colourful stuccowork by E. Castello (Ständesaal, Gloriensaal, Feldherrensaal), the tower was made higher in 1702 and fitted with the Glockenspiel (which was originally made for the town of Breda) in 1696. Town Hall, former burghers´ house, has been used as town hall since 1407, reconstructed in 1618, Rococo façade in 1775. Hofmarstall (stables), built in 1607, façade by J. B. Fischer von Erlach (1693), redesigned as Altes Festspielhaus by C. Holzmeister 1926 and 1937, and as Kleines Festspielhaus in 1963, contains the Winter Riding School with "Türkenstechen" ceiling fresco by J. M. Rottmayr and C. Lederwasch (1690), above it is the Summer Riding School (Felsenreitschule). Chiemseehof, built after 1300 as bishopric of the Prince-Archbishops of Chiemsee, reconstructions around 1600 and 1782, now seat of the Salzburg Provincial Government. Großes Festspielhaus, built by C. Holzmeister between 1956 and 1960, frieze in the lobby by R. Hoflehner and ceiling frescoes by C. Unger. Provincial Theatre (1892/1893); Mozarteum (1910-1914); Kolleg St. Josef (1961-1964); Bildungshaus St. Virgil (1965 and 1968-76 after plans by W. Holtbauer); federal police headquarters (1985); Faculty of Natural Sciences (1986); central office of provincial tax office (1987); SAFE central offices (1996); Porschehof (Provincial Government, 1998); some departments of the University of Salzburg are now located in the "Toskanatrakt" of the Residenz and in chapter houses in the old city.
Neutor (also called Sigmundstor), a 131 m-long tunnel through the Mönchsberg Mountain built between 1764 and 1767 under Archbishop Sigismund Graf Schrattenbach connecting the old historic city centre and the suburb of Riedenburg, portals designed by W. and J. B. Hagenauer (1767).
Fountains and monuments: Residenzbrunnen fountain (1656-1661), largest Baroque fountain in Central Europe, attributed to T. G. Allio; Kapitelschwemme (horse-pond, 1732), with Neptune group based on plans by G. R. Donner; Baroque Hofmarstallschwemme (horse-pond) based on plans by J. B. Fischer von Erlach (1693/1694), with statues of horse-tamers by B. M. Mandl (1695), reconstructed by F. A. Danreiter in 1732; Madonna on the Cathedral square (1766-1771) by W. and J. B. Hagenauer; Mozart monument by L. Schwanthaler (1842); monuments to Paracelsus, Copernicus, Friedrich von Schiller, Empress Elisabeth, Turnvater Jahn, K. Wurmb and others.
Salzburg: City centre with Kollegienkirche church and cathedral, in the background Hohensalzburg Castle.
Salzburg: 1 Cathedral - 2 Residenz - 3 Residenz-Neugebäude (new building) - 4 Franziskanerkirche church - 5 Kollegienkirche church - 6 St. Peter collegiate church - 7 Pferdeschwemme (horse-pond) - 8 Kleines and Großes Festspielhaus - 9 Mozart´s birthplace - 10 Town hall - 11 Mirabell Palace - 12 Hohensalzburg Castle - 13 Museum Carolino Augusteum - 14 St. Blasius Bürgerspitalkirche church - 15 Nonnberg convent - 16 Mozart´s residence
Coat of arms of the city of Salzburg.
Literature: Salzburg-Stadt, Tätigkeitsbericht und Statistisches Jahrbuch, ed. by Magistrat der Stadt Salzburg, 1971ff.; 1200 Jahre Dom zu Salzburg, 1974; H. Dopsch and H. Spatzenegger (eds.), Geschichte Salzburgs, Stadt und Land, 2 vols. in 8 parts, 1981-1991; F. V. Zillner, Geschichte der Stadt Salzburg, ed. by H. Dopsch, 2 vols., 1985 (11885-1890); P. Peternell, Salzburg-Chronik, 41986 (revised by H. Dopsch and R. Hoffmann); B. Euler et al. (eds.), with contributions by R. Acker-Sutter et al., Salzburg Stadt und Land (= Dehio-Handbuch), 1986; H. Dopsch, Vom Stadtrecht zur Bürgerbeteiligung, Festschrift 700 Jahre Stadtrecht von Salzburg, 1987; F. Martin, Kunst in Salzburg, 1987; Stadtgemeinde Salzburg, Amt für Statistik (ed.), Salzburg in Zahlen, Beiträge zur Stadtforschung, 1989ff.; idem, Bevölkerung der Stadt Salzburg nach wirtschaftlichen und sozialen Merkmalen, 1989; E. Marx (ed.), Stadt im Umbruch, Salzburg 1980-1990, 1990; E. Marx and T. Weidenholzer, Chronik der Stadt Salzburg 1970-1979, 1993; E. Marx (ed.), Bomben auf Salzburg, 31995; H. Dopsch and R. Hoffmann, Geschichte der Stadt Salzburg, 1996; E. Marx (ed.), Befreit und besetzt. Stadt Salzburg 1945-55, 1996.
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