Liszt, Franz, * 1811
Franz Liszt, anonymous painting (Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna)
Liszt, Franz, b. Raiding (Burgenland, then Hungary), Oct. 22, 1811, d. Bayreuth (Germany), July 31, 1886, composer, cousin of Eduard Liszt und Franz von Liszt. One of the most famous virtuoso pianists, conductor, teacher, also furthered the careers of other artists. First public performance when he was 8 years old, from 1821 onwards studied with C. Czerny. 1823 moved to Paris, where he gave numerous concerts and became the favourite of the Paris Salons. Numerous love affairs, particularly with Caroline de Saint-Criq, Marie d´Agoult (with whom he had a daughter by the name of Cosima Bülow, later Wagner) and Caroline Sayn-Wittgenstein. Sought-after teacher, responsible for advances in piano design. Ushered in a new era of virtuosity and revolutionized the technique and sound of piano music. As a composer he greatly influenced the development of program music harmony and melodic patterns. Also made important contributions to musical practice. From 1848 to 1861 Hofkapellmeister (chief of the court orchestra) in the city of Weimar; from 1861 in Rome, turned to religion, 1865 he took the four minor orders and after that lived alternately in Rome, Budapest, Weimar and Bayreuth. He composed music and gave lessons (about 400 piano students, including E. d´Albert, H. von Bülow, F. Weingartner, E. von Sauer). As head of the "Neudeutsche Schule" he supported Wagner's work. His friendship with R. Wagner was flawed by Wagner's affair with Cosima until ca. 1872.
Publications: 5 oratorios (Die Legende der hl. Elisabeth, Christus, Die hl. Cäcilia, etc.), masses (Graner Messe 1856), psalms, requiem, motets (total of approx. 80 publications), profane cantatas and choral works; Orchestral pieces and arrangements; approx. 250 piano pieces (Consolations, 1849; 19 Hungarian Rhapsodies 1847-1853); Preludes and fugues on the name Bach (organ); 2 piano concertos; approx. 60 piano pieces. - Editions: F. L., Musikalische Werke, publ. by F. Busoni, P. Raabe et al., 1907-1936; F. L., New edition, 1970ff.; Gesammelte Schriften, 6 vols, 1880-1883; Briefwechsel, 8 vols, 1893-1905.
Literature: A. Göllerich, F. L., 1908; K. Grunsky, F. L., 1924; P. Raabe, F. L., 2 vols, 1931; A. Walker, L., 1971; E. Perenyi, L., 1975; C. Rueger, F. L., 1997; W. Dömling, F. L. und seine Zeit, 21998; M. Wagner, F. L. Sein Werk - sein Leben, 2000; NDB.
References to other albums: