Emperor Karl I of Austria with Empress Zita and their children Felix, Robert, Otto and Adelheid, photo, 1917
Karl I, b. Persenbeug (Lower Austria), Aug. 17, 1887, d. Funchal, Madeira (Portugal), April 1, 1922, 1916-1918 Emperor of Austria and King Karl IV of Hungary. married Zita von Bourbon-Parma in 1911. After the death of his uncle Franz Ferdinand in 1914 successor to the throne, and Emperor after the death of Emperor Franz Josef. In 1916/17 he attempted to take Austria-Hungary out of the war through a separate peace (Sixtus Affair). On November 11, 1918 he renounced participation in all affairs of state in Austria and on November 13, 1918 also in Hungary; on March 23/24,1919 he emigrated together with his family to Switzerland; in 1921 he made two attempts to regain the Hungarian throne and was consequently interned by the Allies in Madeira, where he died after a few months.
Literature: R. Lorenz, Ks. K. und der Untergang der Donaumonarchie, 1959; E. Feigl, Ks. K., 1984.
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