Dalmatia, region on the Adriatic coast of the Balkan Peninsula with small off-shore islands, area 11,770 km2 (2,100 km2 of which are islands); at the time of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy predominantly Croat (1910 96.6 %) and Italian (2.6 %) population (altogether 646,062). From the 10th century D. was largely conquered by the Croats, from the 11th century Venice occupied the towns Split/Spalato, Zadar/Zara, Dubrovnik/Ragusa, in the 15th century the Ottomans conquered parts of Dalmatia. The portion to be held by Venice was determined only in the peace treaties of Karlowitz (Sremski Karlovci) 1699 and Passarowitz (Pozarevac) 1718. In the peace of Campoformido 1797 D. was assigned to the Austrian monarchy; 1805-1810 it formed part of the Italian kingdom, 1810-1814 part of France; from 1815 again under Austrian rule and in 1816 was made a kingdom. In the revolution 1848/49 Dalmatia supported the Vienna government against the Hungarians. In 1867 became part of the western half of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In 1869/70 and 1881 the application of Austrian military laws triggered off riots. After World War I Dalmatia´s status was unclear; ceded to Yugoslavia in the treaty of Rapallo 1920, whilst Zadar, Rijeka and a number of islands were transferred to Italy.
Literature: E. Bauer, Drei Löwenköpfe, Österreich in Dalmatien, 1973.