Conrad von Hötzendorf, Franz Freiherr, ab 1918 Graf
Baron Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf. Photo, 1914.
Conrad von Hötzendorf, Franz (Baron, from 1918 Count), b. Penzing near Vienna, Nov. 11, 1852, d. Bad Mergentheim (Germany), Aug. 25, 1925, important general and army commander of Austria-Hungary in World War I. Chief of staff of the Imperial Army 1906-1911 and 1912-1917, army group commander in 1917 and field marshal. Reformed the tactical training and esp. the officer's training of officers in the Imperial Army and prepared it for war. After battles involving heavy losses in the summer and winter of 1914 in Galicia, C. played a major role in the success of the battle at Tarnów-Gorlice and the stabilisation of the Eastern front, but he was also at least partly responsible for setbacks such as the South Tyrolean offensive in 1916 and the Russian breakthrough at Luck. He was opposed to increasing German dominance in all theatres of war of the European Central Powers. 1917 dismissed as chief of staff by Emperor Karl, but until July 1918 as field marshal remained in command of an army group in Italy named after him. Later Colonel of all Guards. Wrote several books on military tactics, a fragment of an autobiography "Mein Anfang" (1925) and together with civil servants from the war archives his major works, the large-scale, partly autobiographical book "Aus meiner Dienstzeit 1906-1918" (5 vols., 1921-1925).
Literature: A. Urbanski, C. v. H., 21938; O. Regele, Feldmarschall C., 1955; C. v. H., Private Aufzeichnungen, erste Veröffentlichung aus den Papieren des k. u. k. Generalstabs-Chefs, ed. by K. Peball, 1977.