Bosnia-Herzegovina (Bosnia-Hercegovina): During the 7th century, settlement area of Slavic tribes, who mixed with the Illyrians, a tribe which had absorbed many Roman elements and customs. In the 15th century, native dukes were quite powerful, but Bosnia still became part of the Ottoman Empire in 1443, Herzegovina in 1482; in 1580, Bosnia-Herzegovina became a Turkish province (pashalic); a large part of the population converted to Islam. The rebellion in 1875 led to a Russian intervention; at the Congress of Berlin in 1878, Bosnia-Herzegovina was placed under Austrian administration while officially remaining part of the Ottoman Empire. Bosnia-Herzegovina was occupied despite the resistance of partisan movements, especially the Muslims under Hadji Loja. Austria created a stable school and health system in the area and initiated an economic upswing, thus gaining the support of the majority of the population. The formal annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary in 1908 triggered off a European crisis. Bosnia-Herzegovina was not assigned to either half of the empire, but administered as a "Reichsland" by the joint Ministry of Finance. After the constitution of 1910, Bosnia-Herzegovina was granted its own government with a governor and a Landtag. The opposition among some parts of the population organized itself in the "Young Bosnia" movement, which had a hand in the murder of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1914. Bosnia-Herzegovina became part of Yugoslavia in 1918.
Literature: F. Schmid, Bosnien und Herzegowina unter der Verwaltung Österreich-Ungarns, 1914; E. Bauer, Zwischen Halbmond und Doppeladler, 1971.